The Working Group II (WGII) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) describes the vulnerability and exposure of human and natural systems, the observed impacts and future risks of climate change, and the potential for and limits to adaptation (IPCC, 2014). One of the key messages is that climate change is a challenge in managing risks. Three points that are important are (1) global annual economic losses for additional temperature increases of up to 2 degrees are between 0.2 and 2.0% of income, (2) co-benefits, synergies, and trade-offs exist between mitigation and adaptation and among different adaptation responses, and (3) available strategies and actions can increase resilience across a range of possible future climate while helping to improve human health, livelihoods, social and economic well-being and environmental quality.

Generally, toward incorporation of adaptation to climate change into national master plans, there are three challenges. First is that adaptation to climate change is still in the research and development process. This is because the quantitative estimation of adaptation is limited. Second is that adaptation should have diversities considering local characteristics. Especially, case studies of adaptation to climate change considering local characteristics in the middle income countries and the developing counties are limited and crucial. Third is that adaptation to climate change should be integrated with governmental strategies of existing sectors such as disaster risk management, integrated water resources management and rural development. Furthermore, instead of individual adaptation to climate change, the well-balanced portfolio of various adaptations to climate change should be designed.

In the case of Thailand, the Climate Change Master Plan (CCMP) has been developed by the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP) and was approved by the Cabinet resolutions. ONEP is in the process of preparing National Adaptation Plan for six sectors of water, agriculture and food security, public health, tourism, natural resources, and human settlements and human security. It is expected that technological research results are reflected to update CCMP every five years.

The Government of Thailand mentions importance to tackle water resources management in The Eleventh National Economic and Social Development Plan (2012-2016), and has been considering establishment of the water resources management organization and its data management system at the national level.